वैज्ञानिक पद्धति किसे कहते हैं? WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?

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Source :  http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-the-scientific-method.html WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? The scientific method, as de...

Source : http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-the-scientific-method.html

WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?

The scientific method, as defined by various scientists and philosophers, has a fairly rigorous structure that should be followed.
In reality, apart from a few strictly defined physical sciences, most scientific disciplines have to bend and adapt these rules, especially sciences involving the unpredictability of natural organisms and humans.
In many ways, it is not always important to know the exact scientific method, to the letter, but any scientist should have a good understanding of the underlying principles.
In many ways, if you are going to bend and adapt the rules, you need to understand the rules in the first place.

WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? - EMPIRICAL

Science is based purely around observation and measurement, and the vast majority of research involves some type of practical experimentation.
This can be anything, from measuring the Doppler Shift of a distant galaxy to handing out questionnaires in a shopping center. This may sound obvious, but this distinction stems back to the time of the Ancient Greek Philosophers.
Cutting a long story short, Plato believed that all knowledge could be reasoned; Aristotle that knowledge relied upon empirical observation and measurement.
This does bring up one interesting anomaly. Strictly speaking, the great physicists, such as Einstein and Stephen Hawking, are not scientists. They generate sweeping and elegant theories and mathematical models to describe the universe and the very nature of time, but measure nothing.
In reality, they are mathematicians, occupying their own particular niche, and they should properly be referred to as theoreticians.
Still, they are still commonly referred to as scientists and do touch upon the scientific method in that any theory they have can be destroyed by a single scrap of empirical evidence.

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD RELIES UPON DATA

The scientific method uses some type of measurement to analyze results, feeding these findings back into theories of what we know about the world. There are two major ways of obtaining data, through measurement and observation. These are generally referred to as quantitative and qualitative measurements.
Quantitative measurements are generally associated with what are known as ‘hard’ sciences, such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. They can be gained through experimentation or through observation.
For example:
  • At the end of the experiment, 50% of the bacteria in the sample treated with penicillin were left alive.
  • The experiment showed that the moon is 384403 km away from the earth.
  • The pH of the solution was 7.1
As a rule of thumb, a quantitative unit has a unit of measurement after it, some scientifically recognized (SI) or SI derived unit. Percentages and numbers fall into this category.
Qualitative measurements are based upon observation and they generally require some type of numerical manipulation or scaling.
As an example, a social scientist interviewing drug addicts in a series of case studies, and documenting what they see, is not really performing science, although the research is still useful.
However, if he performs some sort of manipulation, such as devising a scale to assess the intensity of the response to specific questions, then he generates qualitative results.
  • On average, the subjects showed an anxiety level of four.
  • 91% of respondents stated that they preferred Hershey bars.
Generally, qualitative measurements are arbitrary, a scale designed to measure abstract responses and constructs. Measuring anxiety, preference, pain and aggression are some examples of concepts measured qualitatively. For a small group of long-established tests, the results are often regarded as quantitative, such as IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient).
Both types of data are extremely important for understanding the world around us and the majority of scientists use both types of data.
A medical researcher might design experiments to test the effectiveness of a drug, using a placebo to contrast.
However, she might perform in depth case studies on a few of the subjects, a pilot study, to ensure that her experiment has no problems.

WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? - INTELLECTUAL AND VISIONARY

Science requires vision, and the ability to observe the implications of results. Collecting data is part of the process, and it also needs to be analyzed and interpreted.
However, the visionary part of science lies in relating the findings back into the real world. Even pure sciences, which are studied for their own sake rather than any practical application, are visionary and have wider goals.
The process of relating findings to the real world is known as induction, or inductive reasoning, and is a way of relating the findings to the universe around us.
For example, Wegener was the first scientist to propose the idea of continental drift. He noticed that the same fossils were found on both sides of the Atlantic, in old rocks, and that the continental shelves of Africa and South America seemed to fit together.
He induced that they were once joined together, rather than joined by land bridges, and faced ridicule for his challenge to the established paradigm. Over time, the accumulated evidence showed that he was, in fact, correct and he was shown to be a true visionary.

SCIENCE USES EXPERIMENTS TO TEST PREDICTIONS

This process of induction and generalization allows scientists to make predictions about how they think that something should behave, and design an experiment to test it.
This experiment does not always mean setting up rows of test tubes in the lab or designing surveys. It can also mean taking measurements and observing the natural world.
Wegener’s ideas, whilst denigrated by many scientists, aroused the interest of a few. They began to go out and look for other evidence that the continents moved around the Earth.
From Wegener’s initial idea of continents floating through the ocean floor, scientists now understand, through a process of prediction and measurement, the process of plate tectonics.
The exact processes driving the creation of new crust and the subduction of others are still not fully understood but, almost 100 years after Wegener’s idea, scientists still build upon his initial work.

WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD? - SYSTEMATIC AND METHODICAL

Scientists are very conservative in how they approach results and they are naturally very skeptical.
It takes more than one experiment to change the way that they think, however loud the headlines, and any results must be retested and repeated until a solid body of evidence is built up. This process ensures that researchers do not make mistakes or purposefully manipulate evidence.
In Wegener’s case, his ideas were not accepted until after his death, when the amount of evidence supporting continental drift became irrefutable.
This process of changing the current theories, called a paradigm shift, is an integral part of the scientific method. Most groundbreaking research, such as Einstein’s Relativity or Mendel’s Genetics, causes a titanic shift in the prevailing scientific thought.

SUMMARY

The scientific method has evolved, over many centuries, to ensure that scientists make meaningful discoveries, founded upon logic and reason rather than emotion.
The exact process varies between scientific disciplines, but they all follow the above principle of observe – predict – test – generalize.


Read more: http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-the-scientific-method.html#ixzz19bFXiiVn


अगर आपको 'साइंस ब्लॉगर्स असोसिएशन' का यह प्रयास पसंद आया हो, तो कृपया फॉलोअर बन कर हमारा उत्साह अवश्य बढ़ाएँ।

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मासिक,1,उन्माद,1,उन्‍मुक्‍त,1,उप‍लब्धि,3,उबुन्टू,1,उल्‍कापात,1,उल्‍कापिंड,1,ऋग्वेद,1,एड्स जांच दिवस,1,एड्सरोधी क्रीम,1,एनिमल वेलफेयर बोर्ड ऑफ इंडिया,1,एल्कोहल,1,एल्फ्रेड नोबल,1,औरतों में दिल की बीमारी का खतरा,1,कदाचार,1,कपडे,1,कम्‍प्‍यूटर एवं तकनीक,4,कम्प्यूटर विज्ञान,1,करेंट साइंस,1,कर्मवाद,1,किसानों की आत्महत्याएँ,1,कीमती समय,1,कृत्रिम जीवन,1,कृत्रिम रक्‍त,1,कृषि अवशेष,1,केविन वार्विक्क,1,कैसे मजबूत बनाएं हड्डियां,1,क्रायोनिक्स,1,क्रैग वेंटर,1,क्षय मास,1,क्षेत्रीय भाषाओं में विज्ञान कथा लेखन,2,खगोल,1,खगोल विज्ञान,2,खगोल विज्ञान.,1,खगोल वेधशाला,1,खतरनाक व्‍यवहार,1,खाद्य विषाक्‍तता,1,खारा जल,1,खूबसूरत आँखें,1,गणित,3,गति,1,गर्भकाल,1,गर्भस्‍थ शिशु का पोषण,1,गर्मी से बचने के तरीके,1,गुणसूत्र,1,गेलिलियो,1,गोल्डेन नंबर,2,गौरैया,1,ग्रह,1,ग्रीष्मकालीन अयनांत,1,ग्रुप व्हेलॉसिटी,1,ग्रेफ़ाइट,1,ग्लोबल वार्मिंग,2,घाघ-भड्डरी,1,चंद्रग्रहण,1,चमत्कार,1,चमत्कारिक पत्थर,1,चरघातांकी संख्याएं,1,चार्ल्‍स डार्विन,1,चिकत्सा विज्ञान,1,चैटिंग,1,छरहरी काया,1,छुद्रग्रह,1,जल ही जीवन है,1,जान जेम्स 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पम्प,1,ब्रह्मण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्मा,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड के रहस्‍य,1,ब्रह्मान्ड,1,ब्रेन म्‍यूजिक,1,ब्लॉग लेखन,1,ब्लॉग लेखन के द्वारा विज्ञान संचार,2,ब्लॉगिंग का महत्व,1,भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान अनुसंधान परिषद,1,भारतीय विज्ञान कथा लेखक समिति,1,भारतीय वैज्ञानिक,2,भारतीय शोध,1,भूकंप के झटके,1,भूकम्‍प,1,भूगर्भिक हलचलें,1,मंगल,1,मधुमेह और खानपान,1,मनजीत सिंह बोपाराय,1,मनीष मोहन गोरे,1,मनीष वैद्य,1,मनु स्मृति,1,मनोरंजक गणित,1,महिला दिवस,1,माचू-पिचू,1,मानव शरीर,1,माया,1,मारिजुआना,1,मासिक धर्म,1,मिल्‍की वे,1,मिशन स्टारडस्ट-नेक्स,1,मीठी गपशप,1,मीमांसा,1,मुख कैंसर,1,मृत सागर,1,मेघ राज मित्र,1,मेडिकल रिसर्च,1,मेरी शैली,1,मैथेमेटिक्स ओलम्पियाड,1,मैरी क्‍यूरी,2,मैरीन इनोवेटिव टेक्नोलॉजीज लि,1,मोटापा,1,मोबाईल के नुकसान,1,मौसम,1,यजुर्वेद,1,युवा अनुसंधानकर्ता पुरष्कार,1,यूरी गागरिन,1,योगेन्द्र पाल,1,योगेश,1,योगेश रे,1,रक्षा उपकरण,1,राईबोसोम,1,रूप गठन,1,रेडियो टोमोग्राफिक इमेजिंग,1,रैबीज,1,रोचक रोमांचक अंटार्कटिका,4,रोबोटिक्स,1,लखनऊ,1,लादेन,1,लालन-पालन,1,लिनक्स,1,लिपरेशी,1,लीप इयर,1,लेड,1,लॉ ऑफ 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अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स असोसिएशन रजिस्ट्रेशन,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स ऑफ दि ईयर अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लोगिंग,1,साईकिल,1,सामवेद,1,सामाजिक अभिशाप,1,सामाजिक चेतना,1,साहित्यिक चोरी,2,सिगरेट छोड़ें,1,सी. एस. आई. आर.,1,सी.वी.रमण विज्ञान क्लब,1,सीजेरियन ऑपरेशन,1,सुपर अर्थ,1,सुपर कम्प्यूटर,1,सुरक्षित ब्लॉगिंग,1,सूर्यग्रहण,2,सृष्टि व जीवन,3,सेक्स रेशियो,1,सेहत की देखभाल,1,सोशल नेटवर्किंग,1,स्टीफेन हाकिंग,1,स्पेन,1,स्मृति,1,स्वर्ण अनुपात,1,स्वाईन-फ्लू,1,स्वास्थ्य,2,स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य और खानपान,1,स्वास्थ्य चेतना,3,हमारे वैज्ञानिक,4,हरित क्रांति,1,हंसी के फायदे,1,हाथरस कार्यशाला,1,हिंद महासागर,1,हृदय रोग,1,होलिका दहन,1,ह्यूमन रोबोट,1,
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Science Bloggers' Association of India: वैज्ञानिक पद्धति किसे कहते हैं? WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?
वैज्ञानिक पद्धति किसे कहते हैं? WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD?
Science Bloggers' Association of India
http://blog.scientificworld.in/2011/01/what-is-scientific-method.html
http://blog.scientificworld.in/
http://blog.scientificworld.in/
http://blog.scientificworld.in/2011/01/what-is-scientific-method.html
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