What is Solar Retinopathy ?(HINDI )

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हमारे नेत्र पटल हमारी आँखों के परदे को सौर विकिरण से होने वाली नुकसानी का नाम है -रेटिनो -पैथी। पूर्ण (सौर्य )सूर्य ग्रहण अथवा आंशिक सूर्यग...

हमारे नेत्र पटल हमारी आँखों के परदे को सौर विकिरण से होने वाली नुकसानी का नाम है -रेटिनो -पैथी। पूर्ण (सौर्य )सूर्य ग्रहण अथवा आंशिक सूर्यग्रहण के दौरान यदि निर्धारित एवं मान्य ख़ास लेंसों वाले चश्मे पहने बिना ही ग्रहण का अवलोकन अनजाने में कर लिया जाये तो आँख के परदे को एक ऐसी नुकसानी उठानी पड़ती है जो आज की तारीख में फिलवक्त लाइलाज है। ये स्पेशल ग्लासेज ऐसे फिलटर्स लिए रहते हैं जो ISO 12312-2 मानक पर खरे उतरते हों। सौर  विकिरण के पराबैंगनी अंश से होने वाली इस मुकम्मिल नुकसानी का नाम ही है -सोलर रेटिनोपैथी।सामान्य सनग्लासेस से ये फिल्टर्स एक लाख गुना ज्यादा डार्क होते हैं। 

जबकि सनग्लासेस इंफ्रारेड रेडिएशन को भी कहाँ रोक पाते हैं। सूर्यग्रहण के दौरान खासतौर  से पूर्ण सौर ग्रहण और आंशिक सूर्यग्रहण दोनों के दौरान ऐसे खासुलखास चश्मों का अक्सर बाज़ार में अभाव हो जाता है। कितनी बिक्री हाथों हाथ हो जाएगी इसका आज के इस सूचना पिपासु युग में किसी को निश्चय नहीं होता। 

गत २१ अगस्त २०१७ को ऐसा ही एक (पूर्ण )आंशिक सूर्यग्रहण न्यूयॉर्क राज्य के सटातें आइलैंड  (staten Island )में देखा गया था। इसे उत्तेजना में और अपने अनजाने में उधार के चश्मों से देखने के बाद छब्बीस साला युवती निअ पायने सोलर रेटिनोपैथी की चपेट में आ गईं हैं। 

ये महिला आज एक केस स्टडी का सब्जेक बन गईं हैं। माहिर इस मुकम्मिल समझे जानी वाली नुकसानी का ज़ायज़ा ले रहें हैं।फिलवक्त इस का कोई इलाज़ नहीं है अपने आप से ठीक हो जाए तो हो जाए बद से बदतर भी हो सकती है बीनाई।   

फिलवक्त निअ पायने न्यूयोर्क आई एंड एअर इनफर्मरी माउंट सिनाई में हैं।जैसी द्वितीया और अंतिम तिथियों में चन्द्रमा की आकृति होती है अर्द्ध चंद्र या चाप जैसी क्रिसेंट शेप वैसी ही उनके सेंटर ऑफ़ विज़न में बन गई है। दिन के उजाले में उन्हीने गौधूलि डस्क का एहसास होता है रौशनी नामालूम सी रह गई है एक आँख की। 

अडाप्टिव ऑप्टिक्स प्रौद्योगिकी (adaptive optics technology )

नेत्रों को होने वाली नुकसानी का कोशिका के स्तर पर ज़ायज़ा लेने वाली उल्लेखित अभिनव प्रौद्योगिकी से उनके नेत्रों में उक्त सूक्ष्म संरचना का बीनाई को अवरुद्ध करने वाली आकृति का  पता चला है।बाईं आँख की बीनाई(नज़र ,विज़न ) ज्यादा असर ग्रस्त हुई थी बनिस्पत दाईं के। 
बस सूर्य ग्रहण के दौरान सूरज को १५ -२० सेकिंड तक तकने से यह सब हो गया।जो ग्लासेज उसने पहने हुए थे वे जाली थे निर्धारित ISO १२३१२-२ के अनुरूप नहीं थे। 

हमारी आँख एक कैमरा लेंस है तो आँख का पर्दा कैमरा फिल्म कहा जा सकता है जिस पर तस्वीर उभरती है दिमाग जिसे दुरुस्त करता है।उलटी छवियों को सीधी तथा दोनों आँखों में बनने वाली दोअलग अलग छवियों  की एक छवि एक वस्तु की दिखलाता है।  देखता हमारा दिमाग है आँख तो एक बाहरी उपकरण मात्र है।   

A Crescent is a curved shape that is pointed at both ends ,like the moon in its first and last stages .

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai.)

Reference:

(1)http://www.cnn.com/2017/12/07/health/eclipse-eye-damage-case-study/index.html

You may read the whole story as it appeared in print :

On August 21, 26-year-old Nia Payne was hoping to view the solar eclipse in Staten Island, New York. What she didn't expect was to end up in the emergency room with a crescent shape blocking the center of her vision.


The eye damage she sustained while viewing the total solar eclipse in August is detailed in a case report published Thursday in the journal JAMA Ophthalmology.
A technology called adaptive optics allowed doctors to view the damage on a cellular level and see the microscopic structures in her eyes. Previously, this kind of detail could be seen only with glass slides and a microscope.

An attempt to view the eclipse
Eclipse viewers had been warned to view the event only through special glasses: "Filters that meet the ISO 12312-2 standard reduce the sun's brightness to a safe and comfortable level, like that of a full moon, and block harmful ultraviolet and infrared radiation as well," Rick Fienberg of the American Astronomical Society said at the time. "Solar filters that meet this standard are about 100,000 times darker than ordinary sunglasses, and sunglasses don't block infrared radiation."
However, there was a widespread shortage of eclipse glasses due to the event's popularity, and Payne didn't have any.
Watching the celestial event outside her boyfriend's workplace, she noticed the changes around her, as it looked like dusk during the day. Payne looked up at the sun with her naked eye for a few seconds, but it was too bright.
She approached a woman nearby and asked whether she could borrow her glasses. The woman did not appear interested in viewing the eclipse and said she was "blind as a bat anyway." She told Payne she had borrowed them from a friend and agreed to let Payne use them.
Payne put on the glasses and looked up at the partial eclipse for 15 to 20 seconds. She didn't know what eclipse glasses were supposed to look like, but she remembered that the sun seemed particularly bright -- like looking at it with sunglasses on.
"But it didn't bother me, because I thought it would be a great experience to catch a solar eclipse the proper way," Payne told CNN.
She removed the glasses, returned them to the woman and left.
Six hours later, Payne noticed a weird dark spot in the center of her vision. She told her friends and family, but they told her to wait a day. After all, everyone had been outside looking up at the sun, and it was normal to feel "weird."
The next day, Payne lost vision in the center of her left eye.

A case study develops

She went to the emergency room of a hospital in Staten Island, but she said they didn't appear to take her complaint seriously and wouldn't look at her retina.
A friend suggested Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, and Payne went there two days after the eclipse. From that emergency room, she was referred to specialists at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai.
She was diagnosed with solar retinopathy, retinal damage from exposure to solar radiation, in both eyes. It was worse in her dominant left eye; the damage in her right eye was minimal and more manageable.
There is no treatment for solar retinopathy. It may improve or worsen, but is a permanent condition.
The retina is "the camera film of the eye," and it interprets light and turns into electrical energy so the brain can understand it, said Dr. Avnish Deobhakta, author of the new report and an ophthalmologist with the eye and ear infirmary.
Payne asked the doctors whether the damage was from attempting to look at the sun with her naked eye for a few seconds, but they said it looked as though it was caused by staring at the sun for some time.
Doctors believed that the eclipse glasses Payne used were not up to international safety standards. The American Astronomical Society had warned that it had received alarming reports of potentially unsafe eclipse glasses "flooding the market." Some bore a fake stamp to claim that the filters met the ISO 12312-2 standard.
"We saw damage, a change in the center part of her retina, which corresponds with your central visual field, and that is a tipoff for us that there was something going on here related to the eclipse," Deobhakta said.
Doctors used adaptive optics machine to image her eyes, in addition to normal imaging methods, to get a complete picture of the damage.
Adaptive optics were developed by the military to help focus laser beams and then later used on telescopes to reduce the twinkle of stars so they can be seen more clearly. Now, adaptive optics can be used to look at individual cells in the photoreceptor layer of the retina, where the uptake of light occurs before it is converted and transmitted to the brain.
It is also the layer that doctors thought might be most affected by viewing the eclipse improperly.
The adaptive optics image of Payne's retina revealed a crescent shape.
The images revealed something shocking.
"We could see a robust concordance between the shape of the exposed sun during the eclipse and the damage to cells in the photoreceptor layer," Deobhakta said. "When we have a patient who comes in saying they see a dark spot, we have them draw it. She drew a crescent, which corresponded to the exposed sun that was seen in the New York area the day of the eclipse. Then we did an imaging of this layer, and we saw what amounted to a crescent shape of damage to that layer. That really has never been able to be seen before. Our intuitions are shown to be correct by this very precise technology."
Doctors asked Payne whether she wanted to participate in a case study the moment they received the images back from the machine -- on only her second visit to the clinic. Hoping that the findings may help others, Payne agreed.
Dr. Christopher Quinn, president of the American Optometric Association, said the case study's novelty lies in the imaging techniques to characterize and document the retinal damage. And Dr. Jane C. Edmond, a pediatric ophthalmologist at Texas Children's Hospital, said the imaging technique may also have allowed for an earlier diagnosis of solar retinopathy by a few days.

Retraining the eye

Months after the incident, the damage has not changed, for better or worse.
Normal things like reading, driving and watching TV shows or movies have required Payne to retrain her vision. She is training herself to use her right eye as dominant, and she has to be close to the screen in order to watch TV or movies. But if she stares in one place for more than a few seconds, she can see the spot in the center of her vision, and it starts to block out everything else. Reading is the most difficult, she said.
She wore sunglasses for the first couple of months after the eclipse, to manage how bright everything seemed. The brightness and glare of lights at night is the worst, she said.
The spot itself isn't dark anymore, but tends to match the color of whatever she's looking at. Luckily, she still has peripheral vision in her left eye.
Payne is trying to live as she did before.
"So far, it's a nightmare, and sometimes it makes me very sad when I close my eyes and see it," Payne said. "It's embarrassing. People will assume I was just one of those people who stared blankly at the sun or didn't check the person with the glasses. It's something I have to live with for the rest of my life. But it could be a whole lot worse, and I try to count my blessings."
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She no longer lives as close to Mount Sinai as she did, but Payne will return in January for followup observation to see whether her vision is improving or worsening on a cellular level.
Deobhakta and the other doctors who participated in the case study are hopeful that adaptive optics will be what allows the possibility of a treatment for solar retinopathy down the road.
"This gives us a door to see conditions in a way we've never seen them before, and that often precedes treatments," Deobhakta said. "There is no treatment on the horizon, but the horizon is only seen when you're able to see it, and I think that's what this imaging helps us to do. Having this technology and looking at the cellular structure would have to be a precondition to do those things."

Pl See :

Can you really go blind staring at a solar eclipse?

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मासिक,1,उन्माद,1,उन्‍मुक्‍त,1,उप‍लब्धि,3,उबुन्टू,1,उल्‍कापात,1,उल्‍कापिंड,1,ऋग्वेद,1,एड्स जांच दिवस,1,एड्सरोधी क्रीम,1,एनिमल वेलफेयर बोर्ड ऑफ इंडिया,1,एल्कोहल,1,एल्फ्रेड नोबल,1,औरतों में दिल की बीमारी का खतरा,1,कदाचार,1,कपडे,1,कम्‍प्‍यूटर एवं तकनीक,4,कम्प्यूटर विज्ञान,1,करेंट साइंस,1,कर्मवाद,1,किसानों की आत्महत्याएँ,1,कीमती समय,1,कृत्रिम जीवन,1,कृत्रिम रक्‍त,1,कृषि अवशेष,1,केविन वार्विक्क,1,कैसे मजबूत बनाएं हड्डियां,1,क्रायोनिक्स,1,क्रैग वेंटर,1,क्षय मास,1,क्षेत्रीय भाषाओं में विज्ञान कथा लेखन,2,खगोल,1,खगोल विज्ञान,2,खगोल विज्ञान.,1,खगोल वेधशाला,1,खतरनाक व्‍यवहार,1,खाद्य विषाक्‍तता,1,खारा जल,1,खूबसूरत आँखें,1,गणित,3,गति,1,गर्भकाल,1,गर्भस्‍थ शिशु का पोषण,1,गर्मी से बचने के तरीके,1,गुणसूत्र,1,गेलिलियो,1,गोल्डेन नंबर,2,गौरैया,1,ग्रह,1,ग्रीष्मकालीन अयनांत,1,ग्रुप व्हेलॉसिटी,1,ग्रेफ़ाइट,1,ग्लोबल वार्मिंग,2,घाघ-भड्डरी,1,चंद्रग्रहण,1,चमत्कार,1,चमत्कारिक पत्थर,1,चरघातांकी संख्याएं,1,चार्ल्‍स डार्विन,1,चिकत्सा विज्ञान,1,चैटिंग,1,छरहरी काया,1,छुद्रग्रह,1,जल ही जीवन है,1,जान जेम्स 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पम्प,1,ब्रह्मण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्मा,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड के रहस्‍य,1,ब्रह्मान्ड,1,ब्रेन म्‍यूजिक,1,ब्लॉग लेखन,1,ब्लॉग लेखन के द्वारा विज्ञान संचार,2,ब्लॉगिंग का महत्व,1,भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान अनुसंधान परिषद,1,भारतीय विज्ञान कथा लेखक समिति,1,भारतीय वैज्ञानिक,2,भारतीय शोध,1,भूकंप के झटके,1,भूकम्‍प,1,भूगर्भिक हलचलें,1,मंगल,1,मधुमेह और खानपान,1,मनजीत सिंह बोपाराय,1,मनीष मोहन गोरे,1,मनीष वैद्य,1,मनु स्मृति,1,मनोरंजक गणित,1,महिला दिवस,1,माचू-पिचू,1,मानव शरीर,1,माया,1,मारिजुआना,1,मासिक धर्म,1,मिल्‍की वे,1,मिशन स्टारडस्ट-नेक्स,1,मीठी गपशप,1,मीमांसा,1,मुख कैंसर,1,मृत सागर,1,मेघ राज मित्र,1,मेडिकल रिसर्च,1,मेरी शैली,1,मैथेमेटिक्स ओलम्पियाड,1,मैरी क्‍यूरी,2,मैरीन इनोवेटिव टेक्नोलॉजीज लि,1,मोटापा,1,मोबाईल के नुकसान,1,मौसम,1,यजुर्वेद,1,युवा अनुसंधानकर्ता पुरष्कार,1,यूरी गागरिन,1,योगेन्द्र पाल,1,योगेश,1,योगेश रे,1,रक्षा उपकरण,1,राईबोसोम,1,रूप गठन,1,रेडियो टोमोग्राफिक इमेजिंग,1,रैबीज,1,रोचक रोमांचक अंटार्कटिका,4,रोबोटिक्स,1,लखनऊ,1,लादेन,1,लालन-पालन,1,लिनक्स,1,लिपरेशी,1,लीप इयर,1,लेड,1,लॉ ऑफ 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अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स असोसिएशन रजिस्ट्रेशन,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स ऑफ दि ईयर अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लोगिंग,1,साईकिल,1,सामवेद,1,सामाजिक अभिशाप,1,सामाजिक चेतना,1,साहित्यिक चोरी,2,सिगरेट छोड़ें,1,सी. एस. आई. आर.,1,सी.वी.रमण विज्ञान क्लब,1,सीजेरियन ऑपरेशन,1,सुपर अर्थ,1,सुपर कम्प्यूटर,1,सुरक्षित ब्लॉगिंग,1,सूर्यग्रहण,2,सृष्टि व जीवन,3,सेक्स रेशियो,1,सेहत की देखभाल,1,सोशल नेटवर्किंग,1,स्टीफेन हाकिंग,1,स्पेन,1,स्मृति,1,स्वर्ण अनुपात,1,स्वाईन-फ्लू,1,स्वास्थ्य,2,स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य और खानपान,1,स्वास्थ्य चेतना,3,हमारे वैज्ञानिक,4,हरित क्रांति,1,हंसी के फायदे,1,हाथरस कार्यशाला,1,हिंद महासागर,1,हृदय रोग,1,होलिका दहन,1,ह्यूमन रोबोट,1,
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Science Bloggers' Association of India: What is Solar Retinopathy ?(HINDI )
What is Solar Retinopathy ?(HINDI )
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Science Bloggers' Association of India
http://blog.scientificworld.in/2017/12/what-is-retinopathy-hindi.html
http://blog.scientificworld.in/
http://blog.scientificworld.in/
http://blog.scientificworld.in/2017/12/what-is-retinopathy-hindi.html
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