शीर्षक :ज़ीका जंगल से आया है ज़ीका वायरस (ZICV)

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युगांडा में एक जंगल है जिसका नाम 'ज़ीका फारेस्ट' है।यहां एक चालीस मीटर ऊंचा मीनार है जिसकी पांच मंज़िलें हैं सबकी सब बेहद खतरनाक खस्त...

युगांडा में एक जंगल है जिसका नाम 'ज़ीका फारेस्ट' है।यहां एक चालीस मीटर ऊंचा मीनार है जिसकी पांच मंज़िलें हैं सबकी सब बेहद खतरनाक खस्ता हालत में है। यह रोगकारकों का ,तमाम किस्म के पैथोजन्स का, विषाणुओं ,जीवाणुओं ,परजीवियों का भी जंगल है जहां दुनिया भर के कीटविज्ञानी साल भर डेरा डाले रहते हैं अभिनव विषाणुओं का अन्वेषण और उनकी पड़ताल करना ही इनका धर्म बन चुका है जिसका पालन ये अपनी जान को भी खतरे में डालकर करते हैं।

इसी बुर्ज पर एक अन्वेषण के दौरान ज़ीका विषाणु हाथ आया है विज्ञानियों के। अंग्रेजी में इसे ZICV (ZICA VIRUS )कह सकते हैं इसका नामकरण इसी जंगल को यादगार जंगल बनाता है इसी के नाम पर हुआ है।

अमूमन यह बंदरों यहां मौजूद अन्य कृन्तकों का रोग संक्रमण समझा गया था। अपनी नादानी में हम ऐसे कई कुदरती पारितंत्रों को रौंदे जा रहें हैं अपने लालच में चाहें फिर वह मुंबई का मैंग्रोव क्षेत्र हो या अमेज़न का वर्षा वन अन्य कोई ऐसा ही कुदरत का बचावी तोहफा हो हम अपनी करतूतों से बाज़ नहीं आते। मज़ेदार बात यह है ऐसी करतूतें करने वाले   रियाल्टार (Realtors )कहलाते हैं।

हमारी इन्हीं हरकतों से ज़ीका संक्रमण बा -रास्ता एडीज एजिप्टी मच्छर हम तक चला आया है और अब एक संक्रमित मनुष्य से दुसरे तक पहुँचने की  ताक में रहता है।

आपका फिरंगी स्वभाव बिना देखे भाले ऐसे ही किसी ज़ीका संक्रमित व्यक्ति से यौन संबंध बना बैठना आपको मुसीबत  में डाल सकता है। इससे संदूषित रक्त का आधान गलती से भी हो जाए तब यह संक्रमण रक्त लेने वाले रक्ताधान करवाने वाले व्यक्ति तक पहुँच सकता है।

गर्भवती माँ से उसके गर्भस्थ को भी यह अंतरित हुआ है। इसका इल्म तब होता है जब एक ख़ास इलाके में पैदा हुए शिशुओं में एक ही तरह की दिमागी बीमारी(microcephaly) देखने में आये।

संक्रमण का  आम रास्ता है संक्रमित व्यक्ति को जिस मच्छर ने काटा है वह आपको भी काट ले। दिन में ही ज्यादा   सक्रिय रहता है यह मच्छर। इसे अपनी वंशवृद्धि के लिए मानवीय रक्त चाहिए। यह अरबो -वायरस अफ़्रीकी और एशियाई दोनों मूल का है।

Zika may be responsible for infant deformities and accompanying heartbreak for parents in Latin America, but in its birthplace, infected people mostly get no more than mild, flu-like symptoms for a few days.

Mukwaya reels off a list of much more scary viruses that have been isolated in the past 50 years from mosquitoes trapped on the tower. They include yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile virus and Rift valley fever, as well as other nasty ones such as o’nyong-nyong, Bwamba, spondwei, btaya, chikungunya and Kasokero. More are found each year by UVRI researchers, and for nearly all of them there are, as with Zika, no treatments or vaccine.

यह आकस्मिक नहीं है कि युगांडा में मलेरिया से ही हर साल पांच साल से छोटे एक लाख शिशु मर जाते हैं। अलावा इसके पंद्रह  लाख से भी ज्यादा वहां एचआईवी -एड्स संक्रमित (पॉजिटव )लोग मौजूद हैं। कितनों को इसका सहोदर सा लगने वाला रोग हेपेटाइटिस -बी है इसका सही अंदाज़ा मैं और आप नहीं लगा सकते। १९८० के दशक में अपने अध्यापन कार्य के दौरान यूनिवर्सिटी कालिज रोहतक में कितने ही युगांडा से यहां अध्ययन के लिए आये छात्रों के संपर्क में रहा पता चला इनके चचरे ममेरे भाई -बहन, फस्ट  -कज़िन्स सारी  दुनिया में फैले हुए हैं।सगे भाई बहन भी (हाल्फ ब्रदर्स एन्ड हाल्फ सिस्टर्स ). 

इबोला (Ebola )तथा मर्बर्ग (Marburg )संक्रमित भी यहां कितने ही हैं। 


Aedes africanus ने युगांडा को और aedes aegypti formosus विषाणु  ने ब्राज़ील को अपना निशाना बनाया है। ये दोनों ही वेक्टर्स येलो फीवर ,डेंगू और चिन्किन्गुनिया विषाणु के वाहक बनते हैं। लेकिन युगांडा के लोगों के शरीर तो मानों एक प्रयोगशाला हैं इस संक्रमण के  लिए वह अपने को भला चंगा मानते बतलाते हैं। ज़ीका आरण्य में कार्यरत विज्ञानी भी इनसे अलग नहीं हैं। इम्मुनिटी प्राप्त हैं इन्हें ऐसे कई संक्रमणों से। अमूमन यह संक्रमण जानलेवा समझा भी नहीं गया है।

(ज़ारी )





What is Entomology?

Entomology is the study of insects and their relationship to humans, the environment, and other organisms. Entomologists make great contributions to such diverse fields as agriculture, chemistry, biology, human/animal health, molecular science, criminology, and forensics. The study of insects serves as the basis for developments in biological and chemical pest control, food and fiber production and storage, pharmaceuticals epidemiology, biological diversity, and a variety of other fields of science.
Professional entomologists contribute to the betterment of humankind by detecting the role of insects in the spread of disease and discovering ways of protecting food and fiber crops, and livestock from being damaged. They study the way beneficial insects contribute to the well being of humans, animals, and plants. Amateur entomologists are interested in insects because of the beauty and diversity of these creatures.

Entomology is an ancient science, dating back to the establishment of biology as a formal field of study by Aristotle (384-322 BC). There are even earlier references to the use of insects in daily life: such as the growing of silkworms that began 4700 BC in China, which was an important part of peasant life in China, as early as 4000 BC. More than a hundred years ago, entomologists formed a society, the Entomological Society of America (ESA), to promote the science and study of entomology in the United States.

Zika was first identified in this spot near Entebbe. Now scientists must find out how a relatively mild virus spread so far, with such horrific effects



The Zika forest in Uganda, where the Zika virus was first discovered in April 1947
 The Zika forest in Uganda, where the Zika virus was first discovered in April 1947 Photograph: Isaac Kasamani/AFP/Getty Images

The steel research tower rising over Uganda’s Zika forest is almost 40 metres high, has seven rickety wooden platforms and may be the most perilous place on earth. Slap on the equator, close to Lake Victoria, and set above a malarial swamp full of crocodiles, it has been gingerly climbed by generations of entomologists set on baiting and trapping mosquitoes – and isolating the world’s most dangerous viruses.


“It is a global epicentre of pathogens and viruses,” says Louis Mukwaya, head of the entomology department at the Ugandan Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and a world-renowned mosquito researcher. Leopards, snakes and monkeys live in its 24 acres, but breeding in its trees are more than 70 species of mosquito. Together, they harbour dozens of deadly pathogens that could potentially be transferred to man. It is extremely rare to find so many species in one small patch, which makes the forest ideal for research.
Courtesy of the tower comes the Zika virus, discovered by Scottish virologist Alexander Haddow in 1947 and named after the forest where it was found – being carried by a mosquito species called Aedes africanus. Long thought of as a scientific curiosity, it has burst into the medical horror books, suspected of being the cause of microcephaly, a congenital malformation in infants whose mothers were infected during pregnancy.

A watch tower in the Zika forest
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 A watch tower in the Zika forest Photograph: Isaac Kasamani/AFP/Getty Images

Zika may be responsible for infant deformities and accompanying heartbreak for parents in Latin America, but in its birthplace, infected people mostly get no more than mild, flu-like symptoms for a few days. Mukwaya reels off a list of much more scary viruses that have been isolated in the past 50 years from mosquitoes trapped on the tower. They include yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile virus and Rift valley fever, as well as other nasty ones such as o’nyong-nyong, Bwamba, spondwei, btaya, chikungunya and Kasokero. More are found each year by UVRI researchers, and for nearly all of them there are, as with Zika, no treatments or vaccine.
War was officially declared on Zika and its host mosquito earlier this month when the World Health Organisation raised Zika to the level of Ebola and declared “a public health emergency of international concern” and President Obama called for urgent research. But Uganda, the world capital of viruses, mostly shrugged – after all, malaria-carrying mosquitoes cause the deaths of 100,000 people in the country every year, most of them under five. Earlier this month it was reported that a malaria epidemic was raging in the north of the country, with over a million cases and 658 deaths since July. Meanwhile, 1.5 million Ugandans are infected with another virus, HIV, thousands have Hepatitis B, and there have been outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg.
“Say a million people suffered and 650 people died in one epidemic in a few months in Europe or the US,” said Kampala businessman Sudhir Otada. “What would be the reaction? Is it because we are poor?”
Mukwaya says he was astonished to hear of what was in Uganda a pretty harmless disease evolving into a potential global monster almost overnight on another continent. “I was very surprised by what has happened in Brazil,” he said. “Here it causes only a mild fever. I did not expect it to be that dangerous. It would be extraordinary if it really could spread from mosquito to human to human.”
He said had been bitten several times by mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus but, like most Ugandans, had no symptoms. “In Brazil,” he said, “the mosquito that can spread Zika is Aedes aegypti formosus. In Uganda, it is Aedes africanus. Both carry the same viruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya.
“What do we know about Aedes africanus? It bites mostly at altitudes of 18 to 24 metres, it lays 300 eggs at a time, it likes a temperature of 26C-27C, it prefers forest to open land, and, like other mosquitoes, it is attracted to alcohol. How the virus was transmitted to Latin America, and how it might develop or mutate, is just not known.”
Nor have there been any reported cases of birth defects in Uganda. “We do have aegypti [mosquitoes] here, but I think we are protected. It does not regularly feed on man here, but on small animals like rodents, and cats and dogs. I believe we are safe. The mosquito carries both yellow fever and Zika, but it normally never bites humans and when it does it leads only to a short mild fever that many people do not even notice.”
Zika infection may be unknown in Uganda but the forest is a reservoir of disease. Despite this, it attracts its share of tourists and was once visited by the US president Jimmy Carter, who came to spot birds such as the rare crested crane. In the 65 years since the tower was built, UVRI researchers have isolated hundreds of arboviruses – diseases spread by insects and ticks.
“Most of them are potentially deadly,” says Mukwaya, who helped isolate the yellow fever virus in the 1970s and has had a mosquito sub-species named after him. “We do not know what else is in there. If you want to study little-known flora and fauna, you come to Uganda.”

Vegetation in the Zika forest
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 Vegetation in the Zika forest Photograph: Isaac Kasamani/AFP/Getty Images

Also deep in the Zika forest this week, Fred Senfuka and Teddy Muwawu, research assistants with UVRI, were setting mosquito traps – plastic containers baited with dry ice, CO2 and lactic acid.
“I get malaria every three months,” says Senfuka. “We were very surprised to hear about Zika. I have heard of no cases here and we know that several species carry it.”
Muwawu added: “I must be immune. I never even get malaria. I have heard about Zika but as far as I know, I have never had it. We used to act as human bait here in the forest. We would expose our legs or arms and they just came. We were always vaccinated against yellow fever but we don’t fear any mosquito now. We just live with them.”
But Mukwaya and other researchers worry that the mosquitoes in the Zika forest and elsewhere in Africa may be changing their behaviour and their genetic makeup in response to wider ecological changes. Last year 22 species of mosquito new to the Zika forest were captured for the first time, which led Ugandan scientists to think there had been a change in the mosquito fauna over the past 40 years.
“Recently we have seen the mosquitoes that carry Zika coming out of the forest and in to human habitation,” said Mukwaya. “People are now living so close to the forest. It used not to be like that. It could be that the monkeys are running out of the forest looking for food. The mosquito does not fly far and in the past it never used to come out of the forest.
“If the ecology of the forest were to be disrupted, it is possible it could switch to feeding off people and not animals. If the ecology changes, there is a possibility of disease outbreaks here, as in Brazil.”
Increasing encroachment of people into tropical forests – along with changes in temperature and people living closer to wild animals – could be one reason why the world is seeing an increase in viral diseases which were mostly found only in wild animals in tropical regions.
“There is a lot left to find in the forest,” adds Mukwaya. “I don’t think people are immune but the vectors may protect people in ways we do not necessarily know. The behaviour of the mosquitoes may actually protect people here. What is certain is that if we mess with the mosquitoes, they will mess with us. If we cut down the forests and destroy the swamps, there will be changes in the mosquito populations and new diseases will emerge. Many unanswered questions.”
  • This article was corrected on 15 February 2016. Crocodiles are found in Uganda, but not alligators.

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