सिक बिल्डिंग सिंड्रोम (Sick Building Syndrome )को बढ़ाने में अब अगरबत्ती (Incence stics ) की भूमिका

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सिक बिल्डिंग सिंड्रोम (Sick Building Syndrome )को बढ़ाने में अब अगरबत्ती  (Incence stics ) की भूमिका भी खुलकर सामने आई है। समझा जाता है इससे...

सिक बिल्डिंग सिंड्रोम (Sick Building Syndrome )को बढ़ाने में अब अगरबत्ती  (Incence stics ) की भूमिका भी खुलकर सामने आई है। समझा जाता है इससे  पैदा हमारी हवा के  प्रदूषण   की वजह इसमें प्रयुक्त बांस की महीन डंडी(Fine string ) बनती है।
एक अगरबत्ती एक सिगरेट के जलने के वनस्पित औसतन डेढ़ से  दो गुना ज्यादा हमारी हवा में विभिन्न कणीय प्रदूषक छोड़ती है।  

अलावा इसके ,इसके धुएं में 'फ़ेथलेट 'नाम का रसायन मिला है 'फ़ेथलेटिक एसिड  से व्युत्पन्न एक प्रदूषक है। इसके धुएं में मौजूद महीन कणों  में इटली के विज्ञानियों को न्यूरोटॉक्सिक और हिप्टोटोक्सिक कण भी  मिले हैं जो हमारी सेहत को नुक्सान पहुंचाते हैं महीन होने की वजह से इनकी पैठ फेफड़ों में जल्दी ही हो जाती है। हृदय और फेफड़ों की रुग्ड़ता(Cardiopulmonary Morbidity ) के अलावा इसके धुएं में  कई कैंसर पैदा करने वाले तत्व भी मौजूद हैं। सांस के मरीज़ों खाकर नौनिहालों में यह एलर्जिक रिएक्शन के एक असरदार ट्रिगर (उत्प्रेरक )का काम करते हैं।
हमारे घर दफ्तर की हवा की गुणवत्ता को पलीता लगाने वाले अन्यान्य कारण पहले से मौजूद रहे आये हैं मसलन रूम रिफ्रेशनर तरह तरह के डिटर्जेंट्स और इनके वाष्प भी यही काम करते हैं। हमारा आधुनिक घर रसायनों का घालमेल लिए रहता है हमारी हवा में।  
शिशु तो अपना अधिकाँश समय घरों के अंदर ही बिताते हैं। अब भले प्ले -स्कूल्ज आ गएँ हैं लेकिन वहां भी यही क्षीजना हवा की गुणवत्ता का देखा जा सकता है। जबकि अपना ९० फीसद तक समय हम घर दफ्तर में ही बिताते हैं। 

घर से दफ्तर ,दफ्तर से घर बस ,

इतनी परवाज़ ज़िंदगी ,

दफ्तर की मोहताज़ ज़िंदगी। 

हिन्दू जनमानस में पैठी कुछ सनातन मान्यताओं के अनुसार बांस को जलाना शास्त्रों में एक निषेध समझा गया है कहते हैं इससे पितृ दोष लगता है। इसीलिए बांस की लकड़ी का इस्तेमाल किसी भी विध जलावन लकड़ी के बतौर हिन्दू परम्पराओं में देखने को नहीं मिलता  है। आइये इंसेंस स्टिक में मौजूद प्रदूषक पैदा करने वाले तत्वों की कुछ और पड़ताल करें :

विस्तार के लिए यह मूल रिपोर्ट पढ़ें 

(1 )https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2377255/

 (2)https://www.communitypractitioner.co.uk/resources/2016/03/health-risks-incense-use-home-underestimated-source-indoor-air-po

The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?


What are the potential health risks of burning incense indoors? Debbie Roberts and David Pontin take a look in this study.

Debbie Roberts MSc RGN/RSCN RSCPHN DN
Cert Health Visitor, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board
Professor David Pontin PhD RN RSCPHN
Aneurin Bevan Chair of Community Health, School of Care Sciences, Faculty of Life Science & Education, University of South Wales
Correspondence: deroberts@cardiff.gov.uk

Key points

  • Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures; however, it has received little attention in Western literature
  • Home incense use can have significant adverse health effects; particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality
  • Young children, the elderly and those with pre-existing health conditions may be particularly at risk
  • Health visitors can help families to limit their exposure to incense in the home.

Abstract

The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature.
Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research. The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality.
Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.
Keywords: Incense, indoor air pollution, asthma, particulate matter, children

Introduction

Clean air is a basic requirement of life and hazardous substances produced from human activities indoors, such as tobacco smoking, cooking or burning incense, can lead to a broad range of health problems (WHO, 2010). It is estimated that people spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly young children, women and elders (Al-Rawas et al, 2009.) This makes indoor air pollution an important issue for public health workers.
Children’s vulnerability to tobacco smoke in the home has been well documented, and the UK government continues to promote rigorous measures to protect children from second-hand smoke (NICE, 2013). Burning incense in the home is common among many cultures, but the health effects have received little attention in Western literature. Many UK families burn incense regularly for religious or cultural reasons, particularly those from Asian, North African or Arabic backgrounds. A number of studies link incense burning to a variety of health conditions, ranging from cardiopulmonary problems, headaches, forgetfulness and allergies, to neoplasms (Huang et al, 2014; Al-Rawas, 2009).
This paper explores the practice of incense burning in the UK among ethnic minority communities, the chemical composition of the smoke and its potential effects on human health. It focuses on the health visitor’s role in promoting health and reducing health risks for children and families, while recognising the value of clients’ traditional practices and beliefs.

Background

Modifiable environmental factors account for approximately 25 per cent of the global disease burden, and more than 33 per cent of the burden among children (Prüss and Corvalen, 2006). Public health strategies that consider environmental health interventions contribute to the overall wellbeing of communities and are often costeffective. In recent years there has been considerable public interest in understanding the health impacts of outdoor pollution, but less recognition of the importance of the indoor environment, and in particular indoor air quality, on health (WHO, 2010). According to the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study, particulate matter air pollution is responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths globally, making it the second biggest environmental and the ninth most important overall risk factor (Lozano et al, 2012). In contrast to the outdoor environment, people have a greater potential to modify their exposure to indoor environmental pollution, making indoor air pollution an appropriate target for health promotion and disease prevention.
Incense burning inside the home is a common practice in China, Taiwan, Singapore, India, North Africa and Middle Eastern nations (Tse et al, 2011; Wahab and Mostafa, 2007). Incense may be used as a traditional perfume or air freshener as part of religious rituals or to repel mosquitoes. When incense burns it emits smoke containing particulate matter, gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, formaldehyde and other organic compounds. Incense burning is recognised as a source of indoor air pollution that can be modified (Wang et al, 2011); however, it is difficult to evaluate the evidence and draw out practice implications because of the variety of types of incense, the methods of burning and variation in research study designs.

Types of Incense

Incense can be burnt in two ways: directly, eg incense (joss) sticks, or indirectly using charcoal or another combustion source. Using Chinese incense typically involves lighting a flame on a cored incense stick, which is then fanned out. The glowing ember smoulders and burns away the rest of the incense. In contrast, the most frequently used Arabian incense is resinbased. These include oud, bakhour and frankincense, which are derived from aromatic trees. Charcoal is typically used to help burn the blocks, or granules of resin.

Ethnic Minorities in the UK

Data from the most recent census suggests that 7.5 per cent of the UK population self-identifies as Asian or Asian-British (including Chinese), 1.8 per cent as African and 0.4 per cent as Arabic (ONS, 2012). Many health visitors, particularly in urban areas, are likely to be working with diverse populations and may come across families who regularly burn incense in the home. Cultural sensitivity and appropriate responses to cultural issues are important aspects of health visiting work (Cowley et al, 2013).

Aim

This literature review identifies and critiques the available evidence about potential health risks of incense use in the home and draws out implications for HV practice.

Method

A range of electronic databases, Google Scholar and the Cochrane database were searched using the search terms in Table 1. Reference lists of relevant studies were manually searched to capture all relevant literature sources on this topic. Relevant papers were then accessed. Inclusion/ exclusion criteria are outlined in Table 2. CASP UK (2013) critical appraisal tools were used to identify study validity, reliability and generalisability.

Results

Eleven studies met the eligibility criteria – these included two case control studies, four surveys, three cohort studies and two cross-sectional studies. The evidence was analysed using the headings of a number of potential health effects of incense burning (see Table 3), and the reliability, validity and generalisability of the studies was evaluated. The studies are summarised in an annotated bibliography in Table 4. No systematic reviews relevant to the research question were found.

Potential Health Effects

Respiratory effects

When incense burns it releases particulates, gas products and other organic compounds. The adverse effects on health of particulates are well documented and there is no evidence of a safe level of exposure (WHO, 2013). Four of the studies found a link between frequency of incense burning and childhood asthma. Wahab and Mostafa (2007) carried out a case control study of 100 asthmatic children in Qatar and found there was statistically significantly higher exposure to Arabian incense in asthmatic children than among the controls. Similarly, Al-Rawas et al (2009) found that incense used more than twice a week was a common trigger of wheezing among asthmatic children.
Wang et al (2011) surveyed Taiwanese school children and found that the frequency of incense burning at home was associated with an increased risk of asthma and increased medication use. Furthermore, a Taiwanese cohort study examining the impact of genetic and environmental factors on childhood respiratory allergy found that regular incense burning alongside water damage in the house led to more than a ninefold increase in symptoms in children with a paternal history of asthma (Hsu et al, 2012). This demonstrates that when a number of risk factors coexist the individual may be more susceptible.
Alternatively, three studies noted a negative correlation between incense use and respiratory symptoms. Their authors suggest that the presence of a person within the household with respiratory problems was associated with an avoidance of incense burning; however, more study is needed to evaluate this hypothesis (Liu et al, 2013; Yeatts et al, 2012; Lee et al, 2005).
The association between burning incense and lung cancer is uncertain, and epidemiological evidence is limited. Tse et al (2011) conducted a case control study of male lung cancer sufferers in China and found that exposure to incense smoke in the home may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers. The Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large cohort study of adults aged 45 to 75 years, noted that the use of incense in the home seemed to increase the risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory tract in a dose-dependent manner (Friborg et al, 2008).

Cardiovascular effects

The reviewers identified two studies that suggest burning incense in the home may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. A non-randomised study of 50 Taiwanese housewives measured cardiac function and particulate exposure for 24 hours and found an association between stir-fry cooking and incense burning, which were associated with increased particulate pollution and reduced cardiac function (Huang et al, 2014). Although the sample size was small, its results are corroborated by data from the much larger Singapore Chinese Health Study. This found that long-term exposure to incense burning at home was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Compared with non-users, current users had a 12 per cent increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. This included both stroke and coronary heart disease, and the association was particularly strong in never-smokers and those without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (Pan et al, 2014).
Other health effects
Two of the studies identified additional health outcomes of burning incense. A cross-sectional study in the United Arab Emirates found that burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches, difficulty concentrating and forgetfulness (Yeatts et al, 2012). Hsu et al (2012) carried out a cohort study of paternal heredity and household characteristics and found that burning incense was associated with asthma and other allergic symptoms, such as itchy eyes and rhinitis in children with a family history of allergy. Finally, the fire risk from burning incense is not explored by any of the studies identified. This is an important consideration for families and the HVs who work with them.

Discussion

Respiratory effects

The review evidence suggests that burning incense in the home presents a risk factor for asthma and possibly respiratory tract carcinomas; however, the evidence is equivocal. Families with members susceptible to respiratory symptoms may avoid or limit burning incense in their presence, making the evidence difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, in vitro experiments have identified incense burning as a source of air pollution, releasing a range of compounds including known carcinogens, irritants and toxins (Elsayed et al, 2014). Some authors argue that burning incense can lead to higher levels of indoor pollution than tobacco smoking (Liu et al, 2013). The exact mechanism by which incense provokes respiratory symptoms is not fully understood. The complex mixture of gas, particulate and other organic compounds inhaled by people exposed to the smoke varies depending on the type of incense used, the combustion source (if any) and room ventilation.

Cardiovascular effects

There is growing evidence of the adverse cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, including premature mortality (WHO, 2013). Ultra-fine particulate from sources such as incense burning may translocate from the lungs into the blood causing vascular inflammation, clotting and the risk of myocardial infarction. Two studies that link cardiac outcomes to incense use were identified. Huang et al (2014) carried out a small, non-randomised survey with limited generalisability. The authors concede that medication use, comorbidities and other unmeasured indoor air pollutants may have confounded their findings. Nevertheless it is the first study to evaluate the impact of personal exposure to household particulate on acute changes in heart rate variability indices.
The Singapore Chinese Health Study is the second study and it suggests that incense users had a 12 per cent higher risk of cardiovascular mortality relative to non-users. It has a number of strengths – a population-based design, a large number of participants sharing a number of characteristics and detailed information collected on lifestyle factors. Alternative sources of air pollution were negligible as other levels of air pollution in Singapore were low, and solid fuel use was rare. This provided a good opportunity to evaluate the association between incense use and cardiovascular mortality in this population. Nevertheless caution should be used when inferring causality because the study did not collect information on the type of incense used, or other practices such as room ventilation during burning (Pan et al, 2014).

Other health effects

Studies of other health effects of burning incense are limited: only two meet the eligibility criteria of this review. Yeatts et al (2012) used a cross-sectional design with a nationally representative sample of 628 households to look at the neurological effects of using incense in the home. Further study is needed to better understand both the constituents of incense and their possible neurological effects.
The cohort study by Hsu et al (2012) was the only one identified to explore the outcome of childhood asthma and childhood allergy more generally. The prospective design meant that parental history was collected from pregnant women and would not have been influenced by the children’s later health status. However, only mothers completed the telephone questionnaires and they may not have had precise knowledge about their husband’s allergic history. Furthermore, a link between incense burning and childhood allergy and asthma was only found to be significant in the presence of a paternal history of allergy.

Implications for further research

There are limitations to these studies, which may influence the interpretation of results and limit their generalisability. Some of the surveys rely on responder recall and do not record, for example, the degree of room ventilation where the incense was burnt. Some respondents may also have had additional incense exposure, for example in the temple, which the survey does not record and different types of incense may be used outside the home from those recorded in the questionnaires. Since incense is used widely in the communities studied, it is probable that non-incense users had contact with incense, either in places of worship or when visiting other people’s homes. Nevertheless, the robustness of the evidence presented is increased by the large numbers of subjects in the majority of the studies, and the variety of geographical locations.
No randomised control trials (RCTs) were identified in this review. This study design may be unethical when researching the effects of incense burning on human health. Nevertheless, a number of animal subject RCTs noted adverse metabolic changes, weight loss and pulmonary changes in rats exposed to daily incense smoke (Alokail et al, 2011). Finally, incense does not refer to simply one product. It can have a variety of ingredients and be burnt in a number of different ways. See and Balasubramanian (2010) found that emissions varied among the six different brands of incense they tested, with smokeless incense sticks emitting the least amount. Arabian incense uses an external source of combustion and differs significantly from Chinese incense. This makes it difficult to draw general conclusions about incense burning from any one research study. Further study is required to examine which constituents of incense are harmful to human health, and what measures may be taken to effectively limit exposure.

Recommendations

Despite the limitations of the studies identified in this critical review, there seems to be evidence of the potential adverse health effects of burning incense in the home, particularly cardiopulmonary symptoms. Incense is sold without a warning label. There is a high prevalence of use among some communities and often involuntary exposure. Highlighting incense smoke as indoor air pollution is important from a public health perspective. The following recommendations will help families minimise the risks linked with incense burning:
  • Avoid burning incense in the home when susceptible individuals are present i.e. the very young, the elderly, people with a family history of allergy or pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory disease.
  • Consider choosing a low/no smoke incense brand.
  • Avoid additional risk factors where possible e.g. tobacco smoking or damp housing conditions.
Common sense suggests that increasing home ventilation during incense burning will minimise its effects. Unfortunately, none of the studies reviewed actually explored this and further research is required to establish the role of home ventilation in reducing the health impacts of incense burning before firm recommendations can be made. Finally, a systematic review is needed on interventions to reduce ambient particulate air pollution and their effect on health (Burns et al, 2014).

Conclusion
The findings from this literature review have important public health implications for HVs. Current evidence confirms that HVs should raise family awareness of the potential harmful effects of incense burning to respiratory and cardiovascular health. HVs should support families to take steps to manage their exposure to incense in the home. These may include reducing the frequency and duration of incense burning and avoiding burning incense in the presence of children and susceptible individuals. Further studies are needed to profile the chemical components in a variety of incense preparations. This could help manufacturers take steps to use alternative, less hazardous ingredients and make this traditional practice safer to human health and the environment.

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मासिक,1,उन्माद,1,उन्‍मुक्‍त,1,उप‍लब्धि,3,उबुन्टू,1,उल्‍कापात,1,उल्‍कापिंड,1,ऋग्वेद,1,एड्स जांच दिवस,1,एड्सरोधी क्रीम,1,एनिमल वेलफेयर बोर्ड ऑफ इंडिया,1,एल्कोहल,1,एल्फ्रेड नोबल,1,औरतों में दिल की बीमारी का खतरा,1,कदाचार,1,कपडे,1,कम्‍प्‍यूटर एवं तकनीक,4,कम्प्यूटर विज्ञान,1,करेंट साइंस,1,कर्मवाद,1,किसानों की आत्महत्याएँ,1,कीमती समय,1,कृत्रिम जीवन,1,कृत्रिम रक्‍त,1,कृषि अवशेष,1,केविन वार्विक्क,1,कैसे मजबूत बनाएं हड्डियां,1,क्रायोनिक्स,1,क्रैग वेंटर,1,क्षय मास,1,क्षेत्रीय भाषाओं में विज्ञान कथा लेखन,2,खगोल,1,खगोल विज्ञान,2,खगोल विज्ञान.,1,खगोल वेधशाला,1,खतरनाक व्‍यवहार,1,खाद्य विषाक्‍तता,1,खारा जल,1,खूबसूरत आँखें,1,गणित,3,गति,1,गर्भकाल,1,गर्भस्‍थ शिशु का पोषण,1,गर्मी से बचने के तरीके,1,गुणसूत्र,1,गेलिलियो,1,गोल्डेन नंबर,2,गौरैया,1,ग्रह,1,ग्रीष्मकालीन अयनांत,1,ग्रुप व्हेलॉसिटी,1,ग्रेफ़ाइट,1,ग्लोबल वार्मिंग,2,घाघ-भड्डरी,1,चंद्रग्रहण,1,चमत्कार,1,चमत्कारिक पत्थर,1,चरघातांकी संख्याएं,1,चार्ल्‍स डार्विन,1,चिकत्सा विज्ञान,1,चैटिंग,1,छरहरी काया,1,छुद्रग्रह,1,जल ही जीवन है,1,जान जेम्स आडूबान,1,जानवरों की अभिव्यक्ति,1,जीवन और जंग,1,जीवन की उत्‍पत्ति,1,जैव विविधता वर्ष,1,जैव शवदाह,1,ज्योतिष,1,ज्योतिष और अंधविश्वास,2,झारखण्‍ड,1,टिंडल प्रभाव,1,टीलोमियर,1,टीवी और स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य,1,टीवी के दुष्‍प्रभाव,1,टेक्‍नालॉजी,1,टॉप 10 ब्लॉगर,1,डा0 अब्राहम टी कोवूर,1,डा0 ए0 पी0 जे0 अब्दुल कलाम,1,डाइनामाइट,1,डाटा सेंटर,1,डिस्कस,1,डी•एन•ए• की खोज,3,डीप किसिंग,1,डॉ मनोज पटैरिया,1,डॉ. के.एन. पांडेय,1,डॉ० मिश्र,1,ड्रग एडिक्‍ट,1,ड्रग्स,1,ड्रग्‍स की लत,1,तम्बाकू,1,तम्‍बाकू के दुष्‍प्रभाव,1,तम्बाकू निषेध,1,तर्कशास्त्र,1,ताँत्रिक क्रियाएँ,1,थर्मोइलेक्ट्रिक जेनरेटर,1,थ्री ईडियट्स के फार्मूले,1,दर्दनाशी,1,दर्शन,1,दर्शन लाल बवेजा,3,दिल की बीमारी,1,दिव्‍य शक्ति,1,दुरबीन,1,दूरानुभूति,1,दोहरे मानदण्ड,1,धरोहर,1,धर्म,2,धातु विज्ञान,1,धार्मिक पाखण्ड,1,धुम्रपान और याद्दाश्‍त,1,धुम्रपान के दुष्‍प्रभाव,1,धूल-मिट्टी,1,नई खोजें,1,नन्हे आविष्कार,1,नमक,1,नवाचारी भौतिकी,1,नशीली दवाएं,1,नाइट शिफ्ट के दुष्‍प्रभाव,1,नारायणमूर्ति,1,नारी-मुक्ति,1,नींद और बीमारियां,1,नींद न आने के कारण,1,नेत्रदान और ब्लॉगर्स,1,नेत्रदान का महत्‍व,1,नेत्रदान कैसे करें?,1,नैनो टेक्नालॉजी,1,नॉटिलस,1,नोबल पुरस्कार,1,नोबेल पुरस्कार,2,न्‍यूटन,1,परमाणु पनडुब्‍बी,1,परासरण विधि,1,पर्यावरण और हम,1,पर्यावरण चेतना,2,पशु पक्षी व्यवहार,1,पहली बारिश,1,पाई दिवस,1,पुच्‍छल तारा,1,पुरुष -स्त्री लिंग अनुपात,1,पूर्ण अँधियारा चंद्रग्रहण,1,पृथ्वी की परिधि,3,पृथ्‍वेतर जीवन,1,पेट्रोल चोरी,1,पेंसिल,1,पैडल वाली पनडुब्बी,1,पैराशूट,1,पॉवर कट से राहत,1,पौरूष शक्ति,1,प्रकाश,2,प्रज्ञाएँ,1,प्रतिपदार्थ,1,प्रतिरक्षा,1,प्रदूषण,1,प्रदूषण और आम आदमी,1,प्ररेणा प्रसंग,1,प्रलय,2,प्रलय का दावा बेटुल्गुयेज,1,प्रसव पीड़ा,1,प्रेम में ।धोखा,1,प्रोटीन माया,1,प्लास्टिक कचरा,1,फाई दिवस,1,फिबोनाकी श्रेणी,1,फिबोनाची,1,फेसबुक,1,फ्रीवेयर,1,फ्रेंकेंस्टाइन,1,फ्रेंच किसिंग,1,बनारस,1,बायो-क्रेमेशन,1,बायोमैट्रिक पहचान तकनीकियाँ,2,बाल विज्ञान कथा,1,बालसुब्रमण्यम,6,बिग-बेंग सिद्धांत,1,बिजली,1,बिजली उत्‍पादन,1,बिजली कैसे बनती है?,1,बिजलीघर,1,बिली का विकल्‍प,1,बी0एम0डब्ल्यू0,1,बीरबल साहनी,1,बुलेटप्रूफ,1,बैल चालित पम्प,1,ब्रह्मण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्मा,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड,1,ब्रह्माण्‍ड के रहस्‍य,1,ब्रह्मान्ड,1,ब्रेन म्‍यूजिक,1,ब्लॉग लेखन,1,ब्लॉग लेखन के द्वारा विज्ञान संचार,2,ब्लॉगिंग का महत्व,1,भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान अनुसंधान परिषद,1,भारतीय विज्ञान कथा लेखक समिति,1,भारतीय वैज्ञानिक,2,भारतीय शोध,1,भूकंप के झटके,1,भूकम्‍प,1,भूगर्भिक हलचलें,1,मंगल,1,मधुमेह और खानपान,1,मनजीत सिंह बोपाराय,1,मनीष मोहन गोरे,1,मनीष वैद्य,1,मनु स्मृति,1,मनोरंजक गणित,1,महिला दिवस,1,माचू-पिचू,1,मानव शरीर,1,माया,1,मारिजुआना,1,मासिक धर्म,1,मिल्‍की वे,1,मिशन स्टारडस्ट-नेक्स,1,मीठी गपशप,1,मीमांसा,1,मुख कैंसर,1,मृत सागर,1,मेघ राज मित्र,1,मेडिकल रिसर्च,1,मेरी शैली,1,मैथेमेटिक्स ओलम्पियाड,1,मैरी क्‍यूरी,2,मैरीन इनोवेटिव टेक्नोलॉजीज लि,1,मोटापा,1,मोबाईल के नुकसान,1,मौसम,1,यजुर्वेद,1,युवा अनुसंधानकर्ता पुरष्कार,1,यूरी गागरिन,1,योगेन्द्र पाल,1,योगेश,1,योगेश रे,1,रक्षा उपकरण,1,राईबोसोम,1,रूप गठन,1,रेडियो टोमोग्राफिक इमेजिंग,1,रैबीज,1,रोचक रोमांचक अंटार्कटिका,4,रोबोटिक्स,1,लखनऊ,1,लादेन,1,लालन-पालन,1,लिनक्स,1,लिपरेशी,1,लीप इयर,1,लेड,1,लॉ ऑफ ग्रेविटी,1,लोक विज्ञान,1,लौह स्तम्भ,1,वजन घटाने का आसान तरीका,1,वाई गुणसूत्र,1,वायु प्रदुषण,1,वाशो,1,विज्ञान,1,विज्ञान कथा,3,विज्ञान कथा सम्मेलन,1,विज्ञान के खेल,2,विज्ञान चुटकले,1,विज्ञान तथा प्रौद्यौगिकी,1,विज्ञान प्रगति,1,विज्ञान ब्लॉग,1,विज्ञापन,1,विटामिनों के वहम,1,विद्युत,1,विवेकानंद,1,विवेचना-व्याख्या,1,विश्व नि-तम्बाकू दिवस,1,विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस,1,विश्व भूगर्भ जल दिवस,1,विष्णु,1,वीडियो,1,वीडियो बुक,1,वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण,1,वैद्य अश्विनी कुमार,1,वोस्तोक,1,व्‍यायाम के लाभ,1,व्हेलॉसिटी,1,शिव,1,शुक्र पारगमन,1,शुगर के दुष्‍प्रभाव,1,शून्य,1,शोध परिणाम,1,शोधन,1,श्रृष्टि का अंत,1,सं. राष्ट्रसंघ,1,सकारात्‍मक सोच का जादू,1,संक्रमण,1,संख्या,1,संजय ग्रोवर,1,संज्ञात्मक पक्षी विज्ञान,1,सटीक व्‍यायाम,1,संत बलबीर सिंह सीचेवाल,1,सत्यजित रे,1,समय की बरबादी को रोचकने के उपाय,1,समाज और हम,1,समुद्र,1,संयोग,1,सर चन्द्रशेखर वेंकट रमन राष्ट्रीय विज्ञान दिवस,1,सर्प संसार,1,साइकोलोजिस्ट,1,साइनस उपचार,1,साइंस ब्लागर्स मीट,1,साइंस ब्लागर्स मीट.,2,साइंस ब्लॉग कार्यशाला,2,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स असोसिएशन अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स असोसिएशन रजिस्ट्रेशन,1,साइंस ब्लॉगर्स ऑफ दि ईयर अवार्ड,1,साइंस ब्लोगिंग,1,साईकिल,1,सामवेद,1,सामाजिक अभिशाप,1,सामाजिक चेतना,1,साहित्यिक चोरी,2,सिगरेट छोड़ें,1,सी. एस. आई. आर.,1,सी.वी.रमण विज्ञान क्लब,1,सीजेरियन ऑपरेशन,1,सुपर अर्थ,1,सुपर कम्प्यूटर,1,सुरक्षित ब्लॉगिंग,1,सूर्यग्रहण,2,सृष्टि व जीवन,3,सेक्स रेशियो,1,सेहत की देखभाल,1,सोशल नेटवर्किंग,1,स्टीफेन हाकिंग,1,स्पेन,1,स्मृति,1,स्वर्ण अनुपात,1,स्वाईन-फ्लू,1,स्वास्थ्य,2,स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य और खानपान,1,स्वास्थ्य चेतना,3,हमारे वैज्ञानिक,4,हरित क्रांति,1,हंसी के फायदे,1,हाथरस कार्यशाला,1,हिंद महासागर,1,हृदय रोग,1,होलिका दहन,1,ह्यूमन रोबोट,1,
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Science Bloggers' Association of India: सिक बिल्डिंग सिंड्रोम (Sick Building Syndrome )को बढ़ाने में अब अगरबत्ती (Incence stics ) की भूमिका
सिक बिल्डिंग सिंड्रोम (Sick Building Syndrome )को बढ़ाने में अब अगरबत्ती (Incence stics ) की भूमिका
https://www.communitypractitioner.co.uk/sites/default/files/media/image/2017/t1_-_mars_16.jpg
Science Bloggers' Association of India
https://blog.scientificworld.in/2018/08/sick-building-syndrome-incence-stics.html
https://blog.scientificworld.in/
https://blog.scientificworld.in/
https://blog.scientificworld.in/2018/08/sick-building-syndrome-incence-stics.html
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